《中式英文面面觀》:20個例句搞懂最容易被中文使用者誤用的副詞

《中式英文面面觀》:20個例句搞懂最容易被中文使用者誤用的副詞
Photo Credit: Shutterstock / 達志影像

我們想讓你知道的是

你的英文程度為何總是停滯不前?原來是因為「說、寫英文時,除了冠詞和副詞外,都有中式英文的影子」!《建宏多功能英漢辭典》主編簡清國教授,在本書中以分類方式探討其成因,讓讀者迅速掌握訣竅,說、寫出正確而道地的英文。

文:簡清國

【附錄二:容易誤用的副詞】

表「頻率副詞」(adverbs of frequency)的always頻率最高,意為「總是⋯⋯,每次都是⋯⋯」,下來就是usually,接著是often或frequently。學生習作中,濫用always的例子屢見不鮮。

一、always/usually/often

1. 我開車時經常聽收音機。
【正】:I often/frequently listen to the radio while driving.
【不佳】:I always listen to the radio while driving.
【解說】:always含沒有例外之意,用often//frequently比較合邏輯。

2. 他上學經常遲到。
【正】:He was often late for school.
【不佳】:He was always late for school.
【解說】:不能用always的理由如上句。

3. 我們對別人要親切。
【正】:We should always be kind to other people.
【誤】:We should often be kind to other people.
【解說】:「對別人親切」應屬沒有例外,所以要用always。

4. 任何時候打604-315-9857這個電話都可以找到我。
【正】:You can always reach me at 604-315-9857.
【誤】:You can often reach me at 604-315-9857.
【解說】:【正】句的always表示沒有例外。

5. 女孩子通常喜歡吃甜食。
【正】:Girls usually like sweets.
【誤】:Girls always like sweets.
【解說】:【誤】句中用always表示沒有例外,不合常理,因為不是每 個女孩子都喜歡甜食。

6. 年長者比年輕人有經驗,但他們經常做過時的決定。
【正】:Elderly people are more experienced than young people, but they often make outdated decisions.
【誤】:Elderly people are more experienced than young people, but they always make outdated decisions.
【解說】:【誤】句中用always 表示沒有例外,不合常理,因為不是每 個年長者都會做過時的決定。

7. 我一直想去做身體檢查。
【正】:I have always wanted to have a physical checkup.
【誤】:I always want to have a physical checkup.
【解說】:always作「總是,經常,一直」解時,動詞要用簡單現在式,例:I always go to school by bus./The trains are always crowded during rush hours.但是如果要表示「一直 想做,但尚未做」時,動詞要用現在完成式,不能用簡單現在式,如【正】句。另外,always如果與進行式連用時,則表示某種不良習慣一再重複,說話者感到不耐煩、驚訝、 或者困惑,例:You are always finding fault with me.(你老是挑我毛病。)/She was always talking about her ex- boyfriend.(她老是談論前男友。)

二、sometimes/sometime/some time

這三個都是副詞,但用法不同,請看下例:

8. 他有時坐公車上學,有時坐捷運。
【正】:Sometimes he goes to school by bus and sometimes by MRT.
【誤】:Sometime he goes to school by bus and sometime by MRT.
【解說】:sometimes作「有時」解,可置於句首,如【正】句。也可 置於be動詞之後,例:He is sometimes not responsible for what he does. 也可放在動詞之前,例:She sometimes goes to see her parents in the U.S.

9. 我父母將於十一月間來看我。
【正】:My parents will come to see me sometime in November.
【誤】:My parents will come to see me some time in November.
【解說】:sometime 用以指未來的某一不確定時間(an uncertain time in the future),要置於表時間的年、月、日或者星期之前, 例:I will let you know sometime next week.

10. 我記得去年曾經見過她。
【正】:I remember seeing her sometime last year.
【誤】:I remember seeing her some time last year.
【解說】:sometime亦可用於指「過去的某一不確定時間」,例:The author died sometime around 1980.(那位作家在1980年左 右去世)。

11. 他不在此地已有一段時間了。
【正】:He has been away for some time.
【誤】:He has been away for sometime.
【解說】:分開寫的some time 用以表「一段時間」,可置於句尾(合起來的sometime不能置於句尾),亦可置於副詞ago之前, 例:He went to the U.S. some time ago.幾天前/幾星期前, 他去了美國。

三、especially/especially for

中文的「尤其對⋯⋯來說」相對應的英文到底要用especially或especially for,學生經常混淆。其實規則很簡單:especially前有介系詞for,後面就要用 for,以便平行,否則就不用for。請看下例:

12. 很多人付不起帳單,尤其是住在大都市的窮人。
【正】:Many people have trouble paying their bills, especially those poor people who live in the big city.
【誤】:Many people have trouble paying their bills, especially for those poor people who live in the big city.
【解說】:【誤】句的especially前沒有for,其後就不該加for,以便平行。

13. 通過該項考試對中學生很困難,尤其對亞洲來的國際學生。
【正】:Passing the test is difficult for high school students, especially for those international students from Asia.
【誤】:Passing the test is difficult for high school students, especially those international students from Asia.
【解說】:【誤】句的especially前有for,其後也要加for,以便平行。

14. 獨居的人,尤其是老年人,應該雇用僕人來照顧他們。
【正】:People who live alone, especially elderly people, should hire servants to take care of them.
【誤】:People who live alone, especially for elderly people, should hire servants to take care of them.
【解說】:【誤】句中的especially前沒有for,其後就不該加for,以便平行。

四、關係副詞where

表示地點的關係子句中,where一般只跟house/ place/ town/ village/ city等等名詞,例如:This is the place where I was born. 但是關係副詞where也可與case/ incident/ situation/ instance/ exception等等非表示「地點」的名詞連用,請看下例。

15. 在現代社會,有錢人家庭不幸福的例子很多。
【正】:In modern society, there are many cases where rich people do not have a happy family.
【誤】:In modern society, there are many cases which rich people do not have a happy family.

16. 通常丈夫賺的錢比太太多,然而也有太太賺得比丈夫多的例外。
【正】:It is common for the husband to make more money than the wife. However, there are exceptions where the wife makes more money.
【誤】:It is common for the husband to make more money than the wife. However, there are exceptions that the wife makes more money.

17. 青少年在某些情況可以不聽從父母。
【正】:There are some situations where teenagers do not have to listen to their parents.
【誤】:There are some situations which teenagers do not have to listen to their parents.

18. 在網上繳學費比去銀行辦理方便,只要填妥電子申請表即可。
【正】:Going to the bank to pay one’s tuition is not so convenient as using online banking where one just needs to fill out an application online.
【誤】:Going to the bank to pay one’s tuition is not so convenient as using online banking which one just needs to fill out an application online.

19. 有些情況,員警搜索嫌犯要做得很徹底。
【正】:There are some incidents where the police have to search thoroughly for a suspect.
【誤】:There are some incidents that the police have to search thoroughly for a suspect.

20. 人們經常忘記某事,最終要吃到苦頭,這種例子很多。
【正】:There are many instances where people often forget to do something, and they end up reaping the consequences.
【誤】:There are many instances which people often forget to do something, and they end up reaping the consequences.

書籍介紹

本文摘錄自《中式英文面面觀:英漢辭典主編用近1000則例句, 教你全面破解中式英文的謬誤》,時報出版

作者:簡清國

一本徹底改善中式英文習慣的語言學習寶典!

你的英文程度為何總是停滯不前?

原來是因為「說、寫英文時,除了冠詞和副詞外,都有中式英文的影子」!《建宏多功能英漢辭典》主編簡清國教授,在本書中以分類方式探討其成因,讓讀者迅速掌握訣竅,說、寫出正確而道地的英文。

簡教授鑽研中式英文四十多年,如今耗時十年,淬鍊成本書十一章精華。想要英文突飛猛進,閱讀本書就夠!

網路時代充斥著各種資訊,讓人眼花撩亂,無所適從。以「我們都知道健康很重要」來說,一上網查,就有一大堆We all know that health is important. 的例句,讓人以為這是正確的英文,真是誤人子弟,莫此為甚。期盼讀者諸君慎思明辨:這種表達法口說尚無妨,書寫時一定要避免,因為不合乎慣用法。——簡清國

本書特色

  • 突破傳統:首創以分類方式探討中式英文成因,舉例說明,並提出解決之道。
  • 近1000則例句:搜集近千句因文法搭配、詞彙搭配、句型、邏輯等錯誤而造成的中式英文,以正、誤方式舉例說明,一目瞭然。
  • 自我評量:每章節後備有學習自評練習,方便讀者進一步鞏固前章節之學習內容。
  • 例句實用且生活化:涵蓋所有考試與日常寫作素材,無論書寫何種類型文章,都能運用自如。

英文顧問 Peter J. Gibson、Ronald A. Jesterhoudt

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Photo Credit: 時報出版

責任編輯:翁世航
核稿編輯:王祖鵬