雪蟹爭議:因螃蟹而起的外交風暴,將對歐盟與挪威關係造成什麼影響?

雪蟹爭議:因螃蟹而起的外交風暴,將對歐盟與挪威關係造成什麼影響?
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我們想讓你知道的是

歐盟在回應挪威時,一方面考量經濟利益和外交關係的拿捏,另一方面又因為漁業政策和外交政策相互重疊,使得歐盟無法制定統一的行動準則。

過往歐盟雖然是北極海區域的行為者,但卻稱不上是重要行為者,可是自從氣候暖化導致北極航道開通後,歐盟也意識到北極海的價值,因而歐盟在2021年政策白皮書中指出,歐盟作為北極海區域的立法者,歐盟將不會在北極海地緣競爭中缺席,除了繼續透過多邊機制和有關各國合作外,歐盟也將更堅定的貫徹自己的政策目標,包含氣候變遷、環境保護、永續發展。

然而挪威在作為歐盟北極海戰略盟友的同時,其行動也未必符合歐盟的政策目標,例如挪威逕自大規模捕撈雪蟹,已與歐盟永續發展的目標相悖。

綜合上述,我們可以發現歐盟對挪威的態度十分複雜,既不滿挪威專擅獨行的作法,可是歐盟又需要挪威在北極海區域予以支持,故雙方在實務上採取了一種擱置爭議、切割議題領域的作法,只要不涉及斯瓦巴群島和雪蟹爭議,雙方依舊可以透過既有框架或新興發展的協議,進行各類議題的合作。

例如,2018年歐盟和挪威簽訂協議,同意停止在中部北極海進行商業捕撈以保護生態發展,2021年歐盟也與挪威在內的10國合作共同在中部北極海進行科研探勘,2021年歐盟、英國和挪威也就漁業配額達成協議。

因此,儘管雪蟹爭議為歐盟和挪威雙邊關係蒙上一層陰影,短期內雙方應該也難以就雪蟹爭議達成協議,但考慮到歐盟對挪威的需求,歐盟因而與挪威維持著一種既衝突卻又和諧的夥伴關係。

參考資料

  1. Pooter, D. H., 2020. “The Snow Crab Dispute in Svalbard.” American Society of International Law, Vol. 24, No. 4.
  2. Schatz, V. J., 2020. “The Snow Crab Dispute on the Continental Shelf of Svalbard: A Case-Study on Options for the Settlement of International Fisheries Access Disputes.” International Community Law Review, Vol. 22, No. 3-4, pp. 455-470.
  3. Nyman, E., & Tiller, R., 2020. “‘Is there a court that rules them all’? Ocean disputes, forum shopping and the future of Svalbard.” Marine Policy, Vol. 113, p. 103742.
  4. Østhagen, A., & Raspotnik, A., 2018. “Crab! How a dispute over snow crab became a diplomatic headache between Norway and the EU.” Marine Policy, Vol. 98, pp. 58-64.
  5. Østhagen, A., & Raspotnik, A., 2019. “Why is the European Union challenging Norway over snow crab? Svalbard, special interests, and Arctic governance.” Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 50, No. 2-3, pp. 190-208.
  6. Hansen, H. S. B., 2015. “Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the Barents Sea. Diet, biology and management” The Arctic University of Norway.
  7. United Nations Treaty Collections, 1920. “Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, signed at Paris, February 9, 1920” in United Nations Treaty Collections.
  8. Norway Directorate of Fisheries, 2020. “Economic and biological key figures. Directorate of Fisherie (2020).” in Norway Directorate of Fisheries.
  9. Fishing Daily, 2021. “Norway to reduce EU Cod Quota for Svalbard by 10,631 tonnes in 2021.” in Fishing Daily.
  10. Bates, Q., 2021. “Norway increases 2021 snow crab quota.” in Fisker Forum.

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核稿編輯:翁世航