世界文化遺產新增9處:中國土司、日本軍艦島、新加坡植物園入列

世界文化遺產新增9處:中國土司、日本軍艦島、新加坡植物園入列
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聯合國教科文組織在德國波恩舉行第39屆世界遺產委員會會議,有9個項目率先成功列入《世界遺產名錄》,包括中國、南韓、新加坡的名勝。

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聯合國教科文組織(UNESCO)在德國波恩舉行第39屆世界遺產委員會會議,有9個項目率先成功列入《世界遺產名錄》,包括中國、南韓、新加坡的名勝。以下為新增名單:

►中國:土司遺址(Tusi Sites)

中國的「土司遺址」被列入世界文化遺產,包括湖南永順老司城遺址、湖北恩施唐崖土司城址、貴州遵義海龍屯。土司制度是中國元代以來,一個中央王朝對西北、西南邊疆的統治辦法,就是中央王朝承認當地統治者對地區的世襲統治。他們可以保留自己的軍隊、統治,只是需要向中央王朝納貢稱臣。

中國社科院考古研究所所長、中國考古學會理事長王巍認為,土司制度對於中央難派官吏直接統治的地區,對統一的多民族國家有好處,「如果這些地區完全獨立,就會削弱中央王朝統治。」王巍認為,土司制度也有一定消極意義,如存在不同土司間的戰爭,土司之間割據造成交通不暢等,因此清代逐漸消除了該制度。

世遺委員會認為,土司遺址反映了13至20世紀初期,古代中國在西南群山密布的多民族聚居地,所推行之管理少數民族地區的政治制度。中國的世界遺產現增至48項,是全球世遺第2多的國家,僅次義大利。

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: Tusi sites (China)—Located in the mountainous areas of south-west China, this property encompasses remains of several tribal domains whose chiefs were appointed by the central government as ‘Tusi’, hereditary rulers from the 13th to the early 20th century. The Tusi system arose from the ethnic minorities’ dynastic systems of government dating back to the 3rd century BCE. Its purpose was to unify national administration, while allowing ethnic minorities to retain their customs and way of life. The sites of Laosicheng, Tangya and Hailongtun Fortress that make up the site bear exceptional testimony to this form of governance, which derived from the Chinese civilization of the Yuan and Ming periods. – See more at: http://en.unesco.org/news/sites-china-iran-mongolia-and-singapore-inscribed-unesco-s-world-heritage-list#sthash.jtp8Gsxj.dpuf

UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►法國:香檳和勃艮第葡萄園(Champagne and Burgundy vineyard)

列入世界遺產的具有歷史意義葡萄園、酒窖與酒莊,包括法國北部香檳區埃佩爾奈(Epernay)的香檳大道(Avenue de Champagne),以及勃艮第(Burgundy)的因夜丘(Cote de Nuits)與博恩丘(Cote de Beaune)葡萄園。這項殊榮預料將吸引更多觀光客到此一遊。

UNESCO表示,香檳產業是一項非常特殊的工藝活動,結合了農業,工業和商業於一身,這次所列入的範圍包括「由17世紀初至19世紀早期工業革命時期,所有用樽內二次發酵方法釀製汽酒的地方」。香檳區本已是歐洲最貴農地,「申遺」成功後,將可得到額外的經濟資助作為保育用途。

另外,法國勃艮第酒莊出產的紅酒被評選為全球最佳,其中3間酒莊的紅酒價格更名列全球最貴。法國的UNESCO大使洛利歐(Philippe Lalliot)表示,香檳區和勃艮第是法國兩大成就輝煌的地區,目前法國已擁有41個世界文化遺產。

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars (France)—The property encompasses sites where the method of producing sparkling wines was developed on the principle of secondary fermentation in the bottle since the early 17th century to its early industrialization in the 19th century. The property is made up of three distinct ensembles: the historic vineyards of Hautvilliers, Aÿ and Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, Saint-Nicaise Hill in Reims, and the Avenue de Champagne and Fort Chabrol in Epernay. These three ensembles – the supply basin formed by the historic hillsides, the production sites (with their underground cellars) and the sales and distribution centres (the Champagne Houses) – illustrate the entire champagne production process. The property bears clear testimony to the development of a very specialized artisan activity that has become an agro-industrial enterprise.

UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: The Climats, terroirs of Burgundy (France)—The climates are precisely delimited vineyard parcels on the slopes of the Côtes de Nuits and the Côte de Beaune south of the city of Dijon. They differ from one another due to specific natural conditions (geology and exposure) as well as vine types and have been shaped by human cultivation. Over time they came to be recognized by the wine they produce. This cultural landscape consists of two parts. Firstly, the vineyards and associated production units including villages and the town of Beaune, which together represent the commercial dimension of the production system. The second part includes the historic centre of Dijon, which embodies the political regulatory impetus that gave birth to the climats system. The site is an outstanding example of grape cultivation and wine production developed since the High Middle Ages. UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►日本:明治日本的工業革命遺產(Meiji Industrial Revolution Sites)

世遺委員會5日通過日本所推薦「明治日本的工業革命遺產」登記為世界文化遺產,列入世遺的23項設施位於11個不同地方,為日皇明治(1868到1910年)時期工業革命代表。至此,日本的世界文化遺產及自然遺產總計有19件。

「明治日本的工業革命遺產」涵蓋俗稱「軍艦島」的端島煤炭坑、橋野鐵礦山和高爐遺蹟、官營八幡製鐵所、三菱長崎造船所等8縣遺產共23項設施。8縣為岩手、靜岡、山口、福岡、佐賀、長崎、熊本、鹿兒島。其中,官營八幡製鐵所、三菱長崎造船所歷經逾100年仍在運作。日本政府指出,這些設施是「西洋的技術與日本文化融合,日本急速地形成工業國家過程時間推移的表徵,具有普遍的價值」。

(相關報導:日本海上鬼城「軍艦島」 全區3D模型導覽上線

不過,南韓主張包括位於長崎市、俗稱「軍艦島 」的端島煤炭坑等7項施設,在二次世界大戰期間曾強徵朝鮮半島民眾做工,強烈反對日本申遺。但上個月,日韓外相會談的結果,雙方達成共識說要合作。日本派駐UNESCO的大使佐藤地表示,「1940年代,部分設施有大多數朝鮮半島人士等在違反他們的意思之下,被迫在嚴峻的環境中勞動,為了不忘記這些犧牲者,將設置資訊中心等,做出適當的措施。」

這是日本繼前年「富士山」、去年「富岡製絲廠及絲綢產業遺產群」後,連續第3案申遺成功的世界文化遺產。

Inscribed as @unesco #WorldHeritage today: Sites of Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding and Coal Mining (Japan)—The site encompasses a series of eleven properties, mainly located in the southwest of Japan. It bears testimony to the rapid industrialization of the country from the middle of the 19th century to the early 20th century, through the development of the steel industry, shipbuilding and coal mining. The site illustrates the process by which feudal Japan sought technology transfer from Europe and America from the middle of the 19th century and how this technology was adapted to the country’s needs and social traditions. The site testifies to what is considered to be the first successful transfer of Western industrialization to a non-Western nation. UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►新加坡:新加坡植物園(Botanic Gardens)

新加坡植物園申請列入世界文化遺產成功,這不僅是新加坡第一個被列在UNESCO名錄中的世界文化遺產,亦是全球第3個成為世遺的植物園。

新加坡植物園位於新加坡中樞地帶,由1859年英國殖民時期的熱帶植物園轉變成世界級科學機構,目前擔負保育與教育任務;該園1870年代帶頭種植橡膠樹,也讓東南亞成為現今全球天然橡膠主要生產區。

新加坡植物園對獅城民眾來說,充滿歷史印記。新加坡眾多華人社群領袖中,以1816年出生的胡亞基與植物園關係最密切,甚至也被當地視為新加坡植物園幕後推手的重要人物。

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: #Singapore Botanical Gardens (Singapore)—Situated at the heart of the city of Singapore, the site demonstrates the evolution of a British tropical colonial botanic garden that has become a modern world-class scientific institution used for both conservation and education. The cultural landscape includes a rich variety of historic features, plantings and buildings that demonstrate the development of the garden since its creation in 1859. It has been an important centre for science, research and plant conservation, notably in connection with the cultivation of rubber plantations, in Southeast Asia since 1875. – See more at: http://en.unesco.org/news/sites-china-iran-mongolia-and-singapore-inscribed-unesco-s-world-heritage-list#sthash.uR15w4sH.dpuf UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►南韓:百濟歷史遺跡(Baekje Historic Areas)

南韓的百濟歷史遺跡地區也申遺成功,該遺址包括忠清南道公州市的公山城和宋山里古墳群,扶餘郡的官北里遺跡、扶蘇山城、陵山里古墳群、定林寺址、扶餘羅城,以及全羅北道益山市的王宮里遺址和彌勒寺址等8處歷史遺跡。南韓的世界遺產增至12處。 南韓政府代表團表示,南韓百濟歷史遺跡地區申遺成功,將成為世人瞭解韓國百濟王朝的歷史和文化的機會,也將促進韓旅遊產業發展。

Inscribed today as @unesco #WorldHeritage: Baekje Historic Areas (Republic of Korea)—Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, this property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475 to 660 CE, including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the capital, Ungjin (present day Gongju), the Busosanseong Fortress and Gwanbuk-ri administrative buildings, and the Naseong city wall related to the capital, Sabi (now Buyeo), the royal palace at Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together, these sites represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom – one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula (18 BCE to 660 CE) – during which time they were at the crossroads of considerable technological, religious (Buddhist), cultural and artistic exchanges between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan. – See more at: http://en.unesco.org/news/sites-china-iran-mongolia-and-singapore-inscribed-unesco-s-world-heritage-list#sthash.uR15w4sH.dpuf UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►德國:漢堡歷史悠久的海事倉庫和貿易區(Hamburg’s Historic Maritime Warehouses and Business Districts)

1880年代起陸續打造的德國漢堡港「倉庫城」(Speicherstadt),和該市1920年代開始發展的「康托爾豪斯」(Kontorhaus)辦公大樓區與「智利大廈」(Chilehaus),也因見證19世紀晚期至20世紀初期的全球貿易快速發展史,5日上午共同申遺成功,成為漢堡首例。

倉庫城是全球最大歷史性倉庫建築群區,建於1885年至1927年,有連結道路、運河和橋梁,可見紅磚辦公建築。

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus (Germany) — Speicherstadt and the adjacent Kontorhaus district are two densely built urban areas in the centre of the port city of Hamburg. Speicherstadt, originally developed on a group of narrow islands in the Elbe River between 1885 and 1927, was partly rebuilt from 1949 to 1967. It is one of the largest coherent historic ensembles of port warehouses in the world (300,000 m2). It includes 15 very large warehouse blocks as well as six ancillary buildings and a connecting network of short canals. Adjacent to the modernist Chilehaus office building, the Kontorhaus district is an area of over five hectares featuring six very large office complexes built from the 1920s to the 1940s to house port-related businesses. The complex exemplifies the effects of the rapid growth in international trade in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1467/ © Department for Heritage Preservation Hamburg picture library UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►美國:聖安東尼奧傳教區遺址(San Antonio Missions)

位於德州城市聖安東尼奧一帶的5個羅馬天主教遺址,包括阿拉莫(Alamo)堡壘,為西班牙傳教士18世界所建。

Inscribed today as #UNESCO #WorldHeritage: San Antonio Missions (United States of America) — The site encompasses a group of five frontier mission complexes situated along a stretch of the San Antonio River basin in southern Texas, as well as a ranch located 37 kilometres to the south. It includes architectural and archaeological structures, farmlands, residencies, churches and granaries, as well as water distribution systems. The complexes were built by Franciscan missionaries in the 18th century and illustrate the Spanish Crown’s efforts to colonize, evangelize and defend the northern frontier of New Spain. The San Antonio Missions are also an example of the interweaving of Spanish and Coahuiltecan cultures, illustrated by a variety of features, including the decorative elements of churches, which combine Catholic symbols with indigenous designs inspired by nature. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1485 © National Park Service UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►土耳其:迪亞巴克爾和艾菲索斯(Diyarbakir and Ephesus)

迪亞巴克爾堡壘(Diyarbakir Fortress)和哈烏塞爾花園文化景觀(Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape)位於底格里斯河上游流域一處坡地。艾菲索斯涵蓋所剩無幾的亞底米神廟(Temple of Artemis)遺跡。

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape (Turkey)—Located on an escarpment of the Upper Tigres River Basin that is part of the so-called Fertile Crescent, the fortified city of Diyarbakir and the landscape around has been an important centre since the Hellenistic period, through the Roman, Sassanid, Byzantine, Islamic and Ottoman times to the present. The site encompasses the Amida Mound, known as İçkale (inner castle), the 5.8km-long city walls of Diyarbakir with their numerous towers, gates, buttresses, and 63 inscriptions from different periods, as well as Hevsel Gardens, a green link between the city and the Tigris that supplied the city with food and water.

UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

Inscribed today as @UNESCO #WorldHeritage: Ephesus (Turkey)—Located within what was once the estuary of the River Kaystros, Ephesus comprises successive Hellenistic and Roman settlements founded on new locations, which followed the coastline as it retreated westward. Excavations have revealed grand monuments of the Roman Imperial period including the Library of Celsus and the Great Theatre. Little remains of the famous Temple of Artemis, one of the “Seven Wonders of the World,” which drew pilgrims from all around the Mediterranean. The Ancient City of Ephesus is an outstanding example of a Roman port city, with sea channel and harbour basin. © Austrian Archeological Institute http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1018 UNESCO(@unesco)張貼的相片 於 張貼

►西班牙:聖地牙哥德孔波斯特拉之路延伸(Routes of Santiago de Compostela)

西班牙北部4條基督教朝聖路線形成的網絡,為聖地牙哥德孔波斯特拉之路(Route of Santiago de Compostela)延伸。聖地牙哥德孔波斯特拉之路1993年已列入世界遺產。

Photo Credit: shutterstock

另外,義大利阿拉伯諾曼時期的巴勒莫、切法盧及蒙雷阿萊主教堂,以及伊朗的梅曼德文化景觀,亦獲列入世遺。委員會亦因應中東戰事頻繁,文物屢遭破壞,將伊拉克的哈特拉古城、葉門的薩那老城和希巴姆古城等3個世遺,列為瀕危世遺,並譴責極端伊斯蘭組織「伊斯蘭國」(IS)破壞文物。