鏡頭下的緬甸反毒團體:他們憤怒政府對氾濫毒品的消極,便選擇以暴力手段囚禁吸毒者

鏡頭下的緬甸反毒團體:他們憤怒政府對氾濫毒品的消極,便選擇以暴力手段囚禁吸毒者

我們想讓你知道的是

Pat Jasan是一個緬甸克欽邦的基督教反毒品團體,自稱擁有超過10萬成員。該宗教機構因不滿政府對海洛因和罌粟氾濫的消極態度,而自發組織街道巡邏、房屋搜查

攝影:Taylor Weidman|文字整理:Wolfie Zha

Pat Jasan是一個緬甸克欽邦的基督教反毒品團體,自稱擁有超過10萬成員。該宗教機構因不滿政府對海洛因和罌粟氾濫的消極態度,而自發組織街道巡邏、房屋搜查、羈押販毒吸毒者並且清理罌粟種植。然而他們這一系列自發的治安舉措亦因為公開毆打販毒吸毒者而被指過於極端。

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: A team of Pat Jasan members on motorbikes patrols the streets looking for drug users on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

Pat Jasan分隊成員騎在機車上準備上街巡邏吸毒者。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

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被羈押人士在Pat Jasan總部做清潔 。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: Pat Jasan members and detainees share a meal on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

Pat Jasan成員和被扣押者一同分享食物。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: Detainees play music while locked in a room at Pat Jasan headquarters on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

被羈押者在Pat Jasan總部關押期間演奏音樂 。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: Detainees who have tried to escape are locked up in their room on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

嘗試逃跑的被羈押人士被鎖在房間內。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: A detainee sits near the window of her small cell at Pat Jasan headquarters on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

一個被羈押人士坐在一間小型囚室的窗口旁邊。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: Pat Jasan members and detainees share a meal on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

Pat Jasan成員和被扣押者一同分享食物。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: A Pat Jasan member assigned to look after detainees plays guitar on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

一個Pat Jasan成員和被羈押人士彈奏吉他、聊天。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: Photos of poppy clearing operations are on display at Pat Jasan headquarters on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

在Pat Jasan總部展示罌粟花清理行動的相片。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: A Pat Jasan member tests radios before a patrol on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

一個Pat Jasan成員在巡邏前調式無線電設備。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

MYITKYINA, BURMA - JANUARY 26: A Pat Jasan member has his picture taken at headquarters on January 26, 2016 in Myitkyina, Burma. Pat Jasan is a Christian anti-drug group in Kachin State claiming over 100,000 members. Dissatisfied with the government's response towards widespread heroin use and poppy growing, the religious organization has taken matters into their own hands, organizing patrols, raiding houses, detaining drug dealers and users, and clearing poppy fields. Their brand of vigilante justice has been labeled extreme with some chapters accused of publicly beating those involved in the drug trade. (Photo by Taylor Weidman/Getty Images)

一個Pat Jasan成員在總部拍照 。Photo Credit:Taylor Weidman / Getty Images

以下為攝影師Taylor Weidman的採訪自述:

1. 在你記錄這次事件時,有沒有什麼最讓你印象深刻的時刻或是圖片?

在我跟隨Pat Jasan一起行動時,感受最深的是克欽邦內毒品氾濫的程度。我在密支那時有機會探訪了當地戒毒所,拍攝了Pat Jasan巡邏隊,還採訪了吸毒者、巡邏隊成員及當地領袖等不少人。從他們那裏我了解到毒品問題的不同面向,比如獲得毒品的容易程度,以及對種植、買賣和吸食毒品管制的欠缺。根據地方官員估計,克欽邦的年輕人中大約有60%到70%的人吸食毒品。

2. 從局外人的角度,你如何看待巡邏隊與被羈押者的關係?雖然巡邏隊這麼做是基於善意,但畢竟使用了暴力的執法手段,他們之間到底相處如何?

在將吸毒者移交戒毒所前,當地的Pat Jasan會將他們扣留在總部。隊員和拘留者之間看起來還是友善的:那些嘗試逃走的拘留者會被戴上腳鐐,但他們還可以彈吉他。 Pat Jasan的隊員和拘留者會一起吃飯,大多數人都說,許多戒毒成功的人或許會加入Pat Jasan。

3. 你作為攝影記者對這件事的感受如何?

我希望透過我的相片體現這件事情並不是非黑即白。Pat Jasan認為毒品摧毀了他們的家園並且警方並沒有盡力得解決問題,所以他們認為自己是強大的抗爭力量,但同時,他們也選擇了暴力的手段,甚至是超過法律允許的範圍去達到目的。

4. 你是否有記錄大眾對此事的反應?你覺得他們如何看待該團體 ?

在克欽邦州,我和許多與吸毒者有接觸的民眾交流過。他們對此事的反應各有不同,但大部份對Pat Jasan的態度還算正面。儘管許多人並不認可他們使用暴力,但他們確實認為Pat Jasan對反對毒品氾濫起到了有效作用,也確實受到民眾歡迎。Pat Jasan據稱擁有超過十萬成員。

5. 與這些人住在一起並記錄他們每天的生活是一種怎樣的體驗?

我覺得投入時間拍攝Pat Jasan是種非比尋常的體驗,但也會造成很多麻煩。Pat Jasan渴望透過我去突出他們的高效工作,但也盡量避免被我拍攝到任何暴力場景。甚至當時我只拍到幾張被羈押者被銬上腳鏈的相片,他們就要求我不要再拍了。他們為自己的這項工作感到驕傲,但似乎也知道這種暴力手段會受到質疑,即便還比不上中世紀的酷刑。

6. 你會為在緬甸拍攝這種敏感題材感到擔憂嗎?

我在去之前和當地的記者及一個Pat Jasan代表有過交流,他們都認為是安全的。緬甸正在快速經歷著民主化進程,其中一個現象就是媒體自由的束縛在不斷脫落。隨著越來越多故事能獲得報導,那些被認為是「敏感」的故事就是最應該報道的內容。

7. 你如何克服在這種偏遠地方開展拍攝工作的種種困難?

我是在克欽邦州的首府密支那拍攝的,從仰光飛往密支那較為方便。我當時到達後有嘗試去往 Pat Jasan正在焚燒和清理的罌粟田地,但因為地處中緬邊境並且受到反動分子的控制,所以緬甸入境處因為安全問題沒有批准。

相關新聞:對販毒或擁毒者公開羞辱 緬甸禁毒團體與罌粟農爆衝突
責任編輯:吳象元
核稿編輯:李牧宜